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Nutritional optimization during neoadjuvant therapy prior to surgical resection of esophageal cancer - A narrative review.

Huddy, Jeremy R and Huddy, Fiona M S and Markar, Sheraz R and Tucker, Olga (2017) Nutritional optimization during neoadjuvant therapy prior to surgical resection of esophageal cancer - A narrative review. Diseases of the esophagus : official journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus. ISSN 1442-2050. This article is available to all HEFT staff and students via ASK Discovery tool http://tinyurl.com/z795c8c by using their HEFT Athens login IDs

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Abstract

This narrative review aims to evaluate the evidence for the different nutritional approaches employed during neoadjuvant therapy in patients with loco-regional esophageal cancer. Patients with esophageal cancer are often malnourished and difficult to optimise nutritionally. Whilst evidence suggests neoadjuvant therapy can offer a survival advantage, associated toxicity can exacerbate poor nutritional status. There is currently no accepted standard of care regarding optimal nutritional approach.A systematic literature search was undertaken. Studies describing the utilization of an additional nutritional intervention in patients with esophageal cancer receiving neoadjuvant therapy prior to esophagectomy were included. Primary outcome measure was 30-day postoperative mortality after esophagectomy. Secondary outcome measures were loss of weight during neoadjuvant therapy, completion rate of intended neoadjuvant therapy, complications from nutritional intervention, 30-day postoperative morbidity after esophagectomy and quality of life during neoadjuvant treatment. Given the heterogeneity of retrieved articles results were presented as a narrative review.Twenty-five studies were included of which 16 evaluated esophageal stenting, four feeding jejunostomy, three gastrostomy, one naso-gastric feeding, and one comparative study of esophageal stenting to feeding jejunostomy. 30-day postoperative mortality was only reported in two of the 26 included studies limiting comparison between nutritional strategies. All studies of esophageal stents reported improvements in dysphagia with reported weight change ranging from -5.4kg to + 6kg but none reported 30-day postoperative mortality. In patients undergoing oesophageal stenting for their neoadjuvant treatment overall migration rate was 29.9%. Studies of laparoscopically inserted jejunostomy were all retrospective reviews that demonstrated an increase in weight ranging from 0.4 to 11.8kg and similarly no study reported 30-day post-operative mortality. Only one comparative study was included that compared esophageal stents to jejunostomy. This study reported no significant difference between the two groups in respect to complication rates (stents 22% vs jejunostomy 4%, P = 0.11) or increase in weight (stents 4.4kg vs jejunostomy 4.2kg, P = 0.59). Quality of life was also poorly reported.This review demonstrates the uncertainty on the optimal nutritional approach for patients with resectable esophageal cancer undergoing neoadjuvant treatment prior to esophagectomy. A prospective, multicenter, observational cohort study is needed to determine current practice and inform a prospective clinical trial.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: This article is available to all HEFT staff and students via ASK Discovery tool http://tinyurl.com/z795c8c by using their HEFT Athens login IDs
Subjects: QZ Pathology. Oncology
WD Diseases and disorders of systemic, metabolic or environmental origin > WD10 Diet and nutrition
WO Surgery
Divisions: Planned IP Care > General Surgery
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Depositing User: Mrs Yolande Brookes
Date Deposited: 23 Nov 2017 09:59
Last Modified: 23 Nov 2017 09:59
URI: http://www.repository.heartofengland.nhs.uk/id/eprint/1485

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